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South Indian History

The history of South India gloriously spreads over 5000 years. The southern region of India saw the rise and fall of various dynasties. The period of ruling and empire in South India began with the Satvahanas. The Satvahanas maintained a glorious empire starting from 1st Century B.C. to early 3rd Century A.D. They expansively ruled a major part of South India, however, the Chera, the Chola and the Pandya kingdoms of the far south were, certainly, excluded from it.

After ruling for a vast period, the Vakatakas followed the league. Starting their reign from the late 3rd century A.D., the Vakatakas maintained a gigantic empire in the Southern Region of India till early 6th century A.D. After delivering a successful reign, the heritage of Southern India was passed on to the hands of the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Pallavas and the Cholas, who ruled during the period of 600-1200 A.D.

However, after the fall of Vakatakas, a dispute for sovereignity was witnessed among the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas of Dakshinapath (Deccan) and the Pallavas, the Cholas and the Pandyas of the far south. The desire to achieve monarchy over the South India led to internal clashes among the dynasties. The Chalukyas of Badami, the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Pandyas of Madura fought against each other for nearly two hundred years. After the Chalukyas were defeated by the Rashtrakutas, the dispute between them, the Pallavas, and the Pandyas continued for another hundred years. By the middle of the 9th A.D., the Pandyas and the Pallavas were conquered by the Cholas.

The Cholas battled the Rashtrakutas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani for over 350 years (850-1200 A.D.) for supremacy. The internal dispute of these dynasties led to the political division of South India, as none could successfully achieve monarchy over the entire Southern Region, failing to bring political unity in the South.

As the states of the Deccan were at daggers drawn with one another, Sultan Alauddin Khalji took advantage of the dispute to invade the region. Alauddin Khalji was in need of money for the completion of his schemes and for distributing the salaries of the soldiers. He knew well about the prosperity of the South after his first successful expedition to Deogiri in 1296 A.D. So he made a plan to conquer the South in order to get the required money.

In the beginning of the 14th century, the Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiyas of Warangala, the Hoysalas of Diwarasamundra and the Pandyas of Madura, besides a few small kingdoms, constituted the powerful kingdoms of the south. The South India region was ruled by more than 18 dynasties for over a period of 4000 years.

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